Bits of LCS History

In a survey published by Sigaud and Wilson (2007)[337] one can find an overview about important recent trends in what is called LCSs derived from GAs. As one can see from the simplified historical overview below generated from this survey enhanced by some additional information one can see that the field has already some extensions and is freely interacting with other topics like Reinforcement Learning (RL) and Markovian Decision Processes (MDPs). To start with we will have a first short look to the main idea of a Genetic Algorithm (GA) and then we will investigate the main types of the Learning Classifier Systems (LCSs).

Short History of Learning Classifier Systems (LCS)      
1954 ... GA like algorithms N.A.Barricelli      
1957 MDP Markovian Decision Process R.E. Bellman      
1957ff ... GA like algorithms A.Fraser      
1957 DP Dynamic Programming R.E.Bellman      
1960 DP MDP + DP R.A.Howard      
1960 ... GA like algorithms H.Bremermann      
1971 ... GA like algorithms I.Rechenberg      
1974 ... GA like algorithms H-P.Schwefel      
1975 LCS Learning Classifier System John Holland      
1975 GA Genetic Algorithms J.Holland      
1978 CS1 An LCS with RL Holland and Reitman      
1986 BB BUCKET BRIGADE J.Holland et al.      
1987 RL Reinforcement Learning R.J.Williams      
1989 QL Q-Learning C.J.C.H.Watkins      
1990 DYNA RL model based Sutton      
1991 CFSC2 Anticipation-based LCS Rio      
1993 ... Anticipatory Behavioral Control Hoffmann      
1994 ZCS Zeroth-level(strength-based) Classifier System R.J.Wilson      
1994 ZCSM ZCSM with internal registers Cliff, Ross      
1995 XCS Accuracy-based LCS R.J.Wilson      
1998 ACS Anticipation-based LCS Stolzmann      
1998 ZCCS Classifier chaining LCS Tomlinson and Bull      
1998 XCSM(H) LCS with internal registers Lanzi      
2000 LCSA LCS on data mining Booker      
2000 CXCS Classifier chaining LCS Tomlinson and Bull      
2000 XCSR Real valued LCS Wilson      
2001 XCSF Function approximation LCS Wilson      
2002 ACS2 Anticipation-based LCS Butz      
2002 YACS Anticipation-based LCS Gérard et al.      
2003 XACS Accurate ACS Butz, Goldberg      
2005 MACS Anticipation-based LCS Gérard et al.      

Later it will be shown how emotional LCS (ECS) are a straightforward and substantial extension of the family of learning classifier systems.

Gerd Doeben-Henisch 2013-01-14